Lately, I’ve been wanting to re-write demoscene-like applications. Not in the same mood and way as I usually did, though. Instead, I want to build small things for people to play with. A bit like small and easy to use audiovisual experiences (it can be seen as small video games for instance, but focused on the artistic expression as some games do).

See, the type of application you need to write to make a demo is a bit special. Most programs out there are often either oneshot or reactive.

That binary split is not absolute, of course. Some programs don’t belong to any of the two prevous sections (think of a driver, a firmware, etc.). For the purpose of this article, though, it will be enough.

At some extent, we could state that a demoscene production, a video game or a simulation are also reactive programs. They mostly react to time as well as user interaction, network events, etc.. About time, you could imagine dividing time passing with very small quanta and picture time as a virtual clock that ticks such quanta. Every time a new quantum of time is emitted, the whole simulation is notified and reacts. However, representing that problem this way is not necessarily the best idea. See, a function of time is often a continuous function and then, it has an output value for any value of its input that lies in its domain. That property is interesting for us as we can get a value at any time with an arbitrary precision (the boundary being the precision at which we can represent a number on a computer).

The thing is, the kind of program we want generates its own inputs based on, mostly, the speed at which the hardware it’s running on is able to render a complete frame. The faster the more accurate we sample from that continuous function. That is actually quite logical: more FPS means, literally, more images to sample. The difference between two images will get less and less noticeable as the number of FPS rises. That gives you smooth images.

The “challenge” here is to write code to schedule those images. Instead of taking a parameter like the time on the command-line and rendering the corresponding image, we will generate a stream of images and will do different things at different times. Especially in demoscene productions, we want to synchronize what’s on the screen with what’s playing on the audio device.

The overall idea

From my point of view, we need at least two mechanisms of synchronization:

Both those problems are solved by two crates I wrote lately. Respectively, awoo and splines. This blog post is about awoo. splines already has its own dedicated articles here and here. Nevertheless, I will make another blog article about it because I have new ideas I will add to the crate to enrich the splines experience.

awoo and the if / else if problem

Taking on the example of the high-level synchronization described above, one can write quickly the following naive yet working snippet:

let mut time_ms: f32 = 0.;

loop {
  if time_ms <= 5. {
    // render scene 1
  } else if time_ms <= 8. {
    // render scene 2
  } else if time_ms <= 20. {
    // render scene 1 again
  } else if time_ms <= 25. {
    // render scene 3
  } else
    break; // quit

  time_ms += 0.01; // 100 FPS

That code is typical in demoscene production when we have to rush or even if we have a few scenes to write. However, it has several problems:

So, how can we do better? The idea is actually pretty simple. We want a very simple form a finite-state machine. In our case, the states are just what’s inside our ifs; the initial state is the first scene being rendered and the transitions are a predicate on the current time. Straightforward, right?

The idea of awoo is exactly that: allowing you to write the previous code like this:

let windows = vec![
  Window::new(0., 5.).map(|_| println!("hey, it’s scene 1!")),
  Window::new(5., 8.).map(|_| println!("hey, it’s scene 2!")),
  Window::new(8., 20.).map(|_| println!("hey, it’s scene 1 again!")),
  Window::new(20., 25.).map(|_| println!("hey, it’s scene 3!")),
let mut scheduler = SequentialScheduler::new(
  SimpleF32TimeGenerator::new(0., 0.01),


The code is now declarative and easier to read. Internally, the SequentialScheduler used here will make a single test to know which code it has to run. The implementation is not the typical implementation you would find for a FSM (finite-state machine), which uses a graph, but it’s akin.

You might be wondering why we do that map stuff instead of creating a Window directly with the actions. The answer is simple: a Window doesn’t hold any actions. That allows for creating windows via JSON, for instance, without having to deal with closures (I have no idea how that would even be possible with JSON). The idea is then to zip your windows to your actions by using a hashmap, for instance. This following snippet showcases exactly that (fully available here):

const WINDOWS: &str = r#"
  "a": {
    "start": 0,
    "end":   3
  "b": {
    "start": 3,
    "end":  10

let windows: HashMap<String, Window<f32>> = from_str(WINDOWS).expect("cannot deserialize windows");
let a = windows.get("a").unwrap().map(|t| println!("in a: {}", t));
let b = windows.get("b").unwrap().map(|t| println!("in b: {}", t));

What gets interesting is that you can write your own time generator to manipulate the simulation in other ways — and you can also use different schedulers regarding what you do with time. For instance, you can imagine implementing a time generator that gets time from a HTTP request, a keyboard, a network socket, etc. and then control your simulation with external stimuli.

What happens when the escape key is pressed and that you need to stop the simulation in order to quit? Simple: you need an interruptible scheduler. awoo offers that as well in this form:

use std::sync::mpsc::channel;

let (sx, rx) = channel();
let mut scheduler = create_your_scheduler();

scheduler.interruptible_with(move |_| {
  // here, the closure’s argument is the time at which the scheduler is checking for interruptions
  if let Ok(_) = rx.try_recv() {
  } else {


Here, we use the spinning loop of the scheduler to check for interruptions in a straight-forward way.

So far, I have to admit I haven’t digged the async, await and Future concepts in Rust too much. For a single reason: discussions around those concepts have been heated and I will wait for an official announcement of the feature. Schedulers, especially as simple as the ones in awoo, don’t necessarily requires such IO features but the interruptible feature might. To me, the current implementation of interruptible schedulers in awoo is sufficient, especially for animation purposes — I might even add that feature directly in awoo so that you don’t have to do it by hand.

About the scope of the crate

Currently, the crate’s scope is very narrow — and I actually like that. A tight and small scope implies a better visibility about what the crate must do and how it must do it. The crate is currently simple and it might get more and more complex stuff as needs appear. As I always tell other developers and engineers, I don’t like to overthink too much features I don’t even need. Obviously, it’s important to keep planning possible future additions… But not too much. This is why that crate’s scope, if augmented, will only and always revolve around the concept of scheduling animation code. It’s currently an experimental crate and I’m trying to write demos with it, so we’ll see what time thinks about it.

So that’s all for me for today. I hope you liked it. Keep the vibes!

↑ Animate code with awoo!
animation, demoscene, synchronization
Sun Jul 28 11:00:00 2019 UTC